Passives: Agent

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In most cases, the subject of an active verb (the agent) is not mentioned in the corresponding passive sentence. If it does have to be mentioned, we usually use an expression with by.

It should be noted that by is not the only word with which the agent can be introduced. After the past participles of some 'stative' verbs (verbs which refer to states, not actions) other prepositions can be used instead of by.

With is used when we talk about an instrument which is used by an agent to do an action.

See also

Active and passive voice
Choice of passive structures
Passive verb forms
Verbs not used in the passive
Passives: agents
Passives: verbs with two objects
Passives: sentences with infinitive and clause objects
Passives: verbs with object and infinitive
Passives: object complements