Be as an auxiliary verb
With the Present Participles
- I am writing. (Present Progressive)
- She was standing at the gate. (Past Progressive)
- She is knitting a sweater. (Present Progressive)
- You were sleeping. (Past progressive)
With the Past Participles of Transitive verbs
- I was shocked.
- He was treated badly.
- You are rewarded for your service.
- They are sold cheap.
With the past participles of Intransitive verbs
Be can combine with the past participles of certain intransitive verbs to form the perfect tense.
- He is gone. (= He has gone.)
- You are quite grown up. (=You have quite grown up.)
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